Industrial Minerals / Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global industry markets & outlook, 8th edition 2012
- 1. Summary
- 2. Geology and resources of natural graphite
- 3. Mining and processing of natural graphite
- 4. Manufacture of synthetic graphite
- 5. Review of world production of natural graphite
- 6. Review of world production of synthetic graphite
- 7. Review of world production and processing of natural graphite by country and company
- 8. International trade in natural graphite
- 9. International trade in synthetic graphite
- 10. Consumption of natural and synthetic graphite
- 11. Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite
- 12. End-uses for natural and synthetic graphite
- 13. Specifications for natural and synthetic graphite by end-use
- 14. Use of synthetic graphite in electrodes
- 15. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in refractories
- 16. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in recarburising
- 17. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in lubricants
- 18. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in graphite shapes
- 19. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in foundries
- 20. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in batteries
- 21. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in friction materials
- 22. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in other end-uses
- 23. Use of synthetic graphite in carbon fibres
- 24. Competition and substitution of natural and synthetic graphite
- 25. Prices of natural graphite
- 26. Prices of synthetic graphite
Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global industry markets & outlook, 8th edition 2012
World production of natural graphite is increasing in 2012 as Chinese amorphous mines come back on-line following government closures and consolidation since late 2010. Expected growth in both traditional and emerging markets is inspiring a number of new exploration and development projects, particularly for flake graphite, in countries such as Canada, Australia, Brazil, Sweden and parts of Africa.
China is by far the world’s largest producer of natural graphite, accounting for around 70% of global production and 60% of exports. It is also the largest consumer and is expected to continue to tighten its grip on domestic production and exports in order to conserve resources and increase downstream processing. synthetic graphite output is heavily concentrated in the USA, Europe and Japan, and involves a smaller number of specialised producers. high production costs and processing knowledge are significant barriers to entry.
The steel industry will remain the largest driver of graphite consumption going forward; natural graphite is used in refractory furnace linings and as a carbon raiser, while synthetic graphite is used to manufacture graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces. global production of crude steel is expected to grow by an average of 4%py to 2016, by which time Chinese output is forecast to account for 48% of the world total. In 2012, around 29% of crude steel will be produced in electric arc furnaces.
The emerging markets of Li-ion battery anodes and flexible graphite products are also expected to drive long term demand for graphite. Li-ion batteries are one of the key areas of competition between natural and synthetic graphite, and the rising price of high-purity natural grades has resulted in increasing substitution with synthetic graphite. numerous academic and commercial bodies are researching the manufacture and use of graphene; but its potential for commercialisation is not yet quantifiable.
Chinese production of natural graphite compared to Chinese and global production of crude steel
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